New Series n° 14,
Desire & Will – June 2017
Damiano Bondi is professor of Contemporary Philosophy at the Theological Faculty of Florence, and member of the Council Board of Italian Association of Philosophy of Religion – AIFR (www.aifr.it), which is associated with the European Society for Philosophy of Religion; he is also member of the Editorial Board of the European Society for Moral Philosophy (www.moralphilosophy.eu). He studied the French personalism of the XXth Century, in particular the thought of Denis de Rougemont, on which he has published the first monograph in Italian (La Persona e l’Occidente, Milan, 2014). In the last two years, he switched his interest to the links between philosophy, ecology and religion: on this topic he recently published a book entitled Fine del mondo o fine dell’uomo? Saggio su ecologia e religione (Verona, 2015). In the theological context, he is concerned himself with the concept of “person” in Christology and Trinitarian theology. He translated two books by Slavoj Žižek in italian, The Monstrosity of Christ and Paul’s New Moment (La mostruosit. di Cristo and San Paolo Reloaded. Sul futuro del cristianesimo, Massa, 2010 and 2012).
The aim of this paper is to provide a hermeneutics of the role of religious question in our contemporary social context, on the basis of Pascal’s reflections on the phenomenon of divertissement. Starting from a proper contextualization of this theme within the whole of Pascal’s thought, the paper moves to an application of the theoretical-existential core of Pascal’s idea to the present situation of Western society, underlying how the dialectics between the “hunting” and the “prey” (i.e. the desire and its satisfaction) can be useful to better understand the current double movement of virtualization and institutionalization of desire.
James Cargile retired in June 2018 after 53 years on the faculty of the Corcoran Department of Philosophy at the University of Virginia.
Plato is, incomparably, the greatest religious apologist. He saw religion as the basis of the moral spirit of a people and that the religion of his people was no longer respected by its best minds because of its dependence on implausible empirical claims. He saw that, while for many people, worship must focus on contingent things, the rational ground of worship must not be dependent on empirical matters of fact, but on the form of the Good, the source of good fit of ideas to facts, of the possibility of making sense of being. That form’s existence is necessary. As a perfect instance of itself it is perfectly and supremely good and thus personal, and sufficiently powerful to bring about the best in the course of the fullness of time, not eliminating evil but eternally transcending it. The basis of this vision was opposed by Aristotle, who found the idea of a form common to all good things, from soup and shoes to math and morals to be nonsensical. This paper argues that it is not nonsensical and is the proper basis for religious rationalism. Perfect goodness is the core idea of the ontological argument. That argument, unfortunately, often (as in Anselm) became infected with meinongianism. Also, it aspired to show that the atheist is a fool, which cannot be established about appropriately humble atheists. Rational people can disagree fundamentally about necessary truths. Atheism is not irrational, but falls short of the best appreciation of goodness. The conceptual scheme of perfect goodness depends on inspiration and proper response to instances. The instances will be present in material, perceptible things and human recognition of goodness is largely dependent on perceiving those things. Rationalism can bring out the non-empirical status of this common feature---at least to some participants in dialogue. That is a modest achievement, a mere aspect of religious thinking, but worth making clear.
Paul Clavier is the Director of the Department of Philosophy the University of Lorreine. His main interests are in history of metaphysics, analytic philosophy of religion, Kant, the concept of creation, and the cosmological argument.
The famous saying “If there is no God, everything is permitted” deserves more attention than the traditional reaction of philosophical despise against popular ethics. In this paper, we pay attention to different versions of this saying. We argue it does not reduce to saying that it is not the case that God does not exist and that some deeds are prohibited. There is something more in the saying than suggested by the logical form of a material conditional. The first part of the paper is concerned with this additional content.
In the second part, we make an attempt to provide the famous saying with some justification. There are different ways of deriving morality from religion, and the one we will explore is that which derives morality from natural religion, but not from revealed divine commands. We will try to show that the mere existence of God conceived of as a creator provides us with a justification that some deeds are not permitted. So there might be normative states of affairs, that are not decreed by any supreme being, and that are nevertheless depending on his existence as a creator. To put it briefly: given God and the exercise of his creative power, there are some obligations, due to God, but not forcedly commanded by God.
is full professor of Moral Philosophy at the Università «Gabriele d’Annunzio» of Chieti-Pescara. He is a member, at times with an executive role, of numerous Societies, Istitutions, Scienti c Commitees, and Redactional Boards of national and international reviews (among which: Internationale Rosenzweig Gesellschaft, Istituto di Studi Filoso ci «Enrico Castelli», European Society for Moral Philosophy; Reviews: «Archivio di Filoso a / Archives of Philosophy, «Nuovo Giornale di Filoso a della Religione», Redazione Romana «Filoso a e teologia»), and author of 140 publications, of which seven are monographies, in different languages (Italian, French, English, German, Spanish and Portuguese). He is a specialist in gures and themes of philosophy of existence (L. Pareyson) and of 20th century Jewish thought (F. Rosenzweig; E. Levinas).
The main claim of this article is that the plasticity of the human formation process does not consist in receiving passively an already-given shape, like hot wax stamped by a seal. Rather, it creates ever new shapes and makes a person overcome her own self-referential horizon. Furthermore, I argue that this formation process is directed by desire, meant as “hunger for being born completely” (Zambrano). The human being comes into the world without being born completely, and it is precisely such a hunger that directs the human positioning into the world.
Paola Premoli De Marchi is Adjunct Professor of Organization Ethics at the University of Padova. Her fields of specialization embrace realist phenomenology, philosophical anthropology and professional ethics. She translated into Italian a few phenomenological works, as The Nature of Love by Dietrich von Hildebrand, (Essenza dell’amore, Bompiani, Milano 2003) and On the Eternal in Man by Max Scheler (L’eterno nell’uomo, Bompiani, Milano 2009). In 2009 she won the Prize “Mario di Nola” of he Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei (Roma, Italy), with the book: Chi è il filosofo? Platone e la questione del dialogo mancante (FrancoAngeli, Milano 2008) which was published in English with the title: Who is the Philosopher? Plato and the Question of the Unwritten Dialogue, (Kdp Amazon, 2014). Her latest publication is Quattro passi nell’etica del lavoro e delle organizzazioni (Youcanprint 2018) an introduction to work ethics in organizations.
Virtue ethicists do not generally appeal to theism in order to ground their central theses. In this paper I shall argue, however, that unless virtue ethics defends a commitment to wisdom as an essential quality of a virtuous agent, its neutrality vis- à-vis theism leads to an inconsistent conception of the virtuous agent as someone who could be indifferent to potentially important existential issues. Indeed, since virtue ethics presupposes a realist conception of reasons for action, a virtuous agent must be committed to wisdom and cannot be indifferent to the issue of theism.
Richard Glauser is emeritus professor of general philosophy at the University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland. He is the author of Berkeley et les philosophes du XVIIe si.cle. Perception et scepticisme (Mardaga, 1999) and numerous articles on a variety of authors in Early Modern philosophy.
When preparing the second edition (1694) of the Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Locke came to realise that his recent distinction between desire and the will as distinct powers was in some way connected with another, older distinction of his: that between natural good (pleasure) and moral good (rectitude). Evidence of Locke’s awareness of the connection of the two distinctions appears in a fragment he did not publish, “Voluntas” (dated 1693), written shortly before the publication of the second edition of the Essay. My aim is to study this fragment, along with an earlier one (“Of Ethic in General” circa 1686-88), in order to explore the connection between the two distinctions. Sections I to IV set the scene for the conclusion in Section V. In Section I, I say a few words about Locke’s hedonism as a theory of motivation to act. In Section II, I rehearse some salient points of Locke’s theory of natural law, roughly identical with his moral theory. In Section III, I address Locke’s distinction between desire and the will. In Section IV, I try to show that at least sometimes, for some reflective persons understanding the rightness of an action can be a source of pleasure. In Section V, I try to show that Locke believed that a significant reason for his predecessors’ and his own previous failing to distinguish desire and the will as two powers is a lack of clarity concerning the difference between the rightness of an action and what is called – sometimes by himself – its “moral goodness”.
Ide Lévi, PhD, École Pratique des Hautes Études, Paris; temporary lecturer in medieval philosophy at Paris Sorbonne University.
It is generally considered that when theists try to describe the relation between God and morality, or between God’s will and morality, they must either opt for theological voluntarism or for robust moral realism. According to the first option, fundamental moral statuses depend essentially on God’s (necessary or contingent) will. According to the second, a good God acts in conformity to an objective (and necessary) moral order that is in itself independent of his will, as it is of any kind of pro-attitude, will or desire, at least for the most fundamental and prior moral statuses (like moral goodness and badness). But whether moral norms and values are considered essentially dependent on God’s will or totally independent from it, the fact remains that according to both options, things matter for us, have their goodness, and can be considered as requiring such or such appropriate response from us independently of what we love, or independently of the ends we are inclined to pursue. It seems therefore that both horns of the classical Euthyphro dilemma endorse externalism about the fundamental moral facts relevant for rational agents. In this paper, I argue that there is a third possibility which assumes on the contrary that there is a necessary connection between moral facts and the motivational set of the agents for whom these moral facts are relevant. This third option endorses therefore internalism about fundamental moral facts, but in a universalist version of moral internalism. I call it “internalist natural law theory” and try to show how it constitues a live option for classical theists.
Silvio Morigi was Associate Professor of Philosophy of Religion at the University of Siena and now at the State University of Milan. His research concerns the theme of sacrifice in British philosophical and theological thought in eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (Amore sacrificale. L’Atonement in F. D. Maurice and W. Temple, 1987; L’agape come forma della testimonianza cristiana e il cristianesimo come “morte della religione”. R.G. Collingwood and W. Temple, 1990). His research also concerns contemporary French philosophical culture, especially French personalism and Ren. Girard’s .mimetic theory. (La “vertigine della profondit.”. “Esteriorizzazione” e “interioriozzazione” come “sistole e diastole” della persona in E. Mounier, 2006; Un essere “vuoto di essere”, “morale e risolutamente manicheo”. Il demoniaco e la demonologia evangelica come “sapere paradossale” in R.Girard, 2007; “Dessiner en creux”. Il sacro e la Croce, 2009; Fede cristiana e “fedeltà alla terra”. “Terra” e “sottosuolo” nel primo Girard, 2009). In 2008, he organized a National Meeting at “Casa del Petrarca”, in Arezzo, Italy, about the following topics: Religioni, laicità, secolarizzazione. Il cristianesimo come “fine del sacro” in René Girard.
Whereas the later Girard will acknowledge that it is impossible for man to transcend imitation in desire, the first Girard puts human authenticity in a «rupture» from a mimetic standpoint, opposing «désir selon l’Autre», mimetic-triangular, and «désir selon Soi», «spontané». The purpose of this paper is to point out the theoretical fecundity of this dichotomy. The paper also shows how Girardian «désir selon Soi» recalls, in a singular way, the Nietzschean «loyalty to the earth» (reinterpreted in a sense akin to that one which D. Bonhöffer reads in it) in spite of the strong critic which the later Girard will address to Nietzsche. The «désir selon Soi» also recalls the «amour action» as opposed to the «amour passion» in L’Amour et l’Occident by D. de Rougemont, one of the chief representatives of French Personalism.
Carles José i Mestre is Doctor in Philosophy and Lecturer Part-Time in the Department of Philosophy of the University of Barcelona, where he teaches Moral and Political Philosophy. His main areas of research are Aristotelian Ethics, Politics (specially regarding the idea of common good), and Nationalism, with a number of contributions in international conferences and specialised publications.
This paper shows a detailed and documented exposition of a new figure regarding the classical explanations of the Aristotelian moral typology: the figure of φαûλος, which should be clearly differentiated from the figure of the vicious person and from the figure of the incontinent person, which Aristotle systematically explained both. Since the Aristotelian texts lack a systematic explanation about the φαûλος, arguments and evidence are shown in order to affirm that this new figure is crucial in gaining the full sense of that typology, especially regarding the side of “what is not good”. In addition to a more complete comprehension of the entire moral philosophy of the author, this revelation of a new possibility of moral agent in Aristotelian ethics should facilitate a deeper comprehension of those agents which are not good, which has been historically tilted towards the polarity between virtuous and vicious, and sometimes to the figure of the incontinent.
Alessio Ruggiero is Ph. D. student in Philosophy at the University of Salerno, for years he has been conducting his research into the thinking ot the German phenomenologist Max Scheler and, in general, on early twentieth-century phenomenology, both in the relationship with his contemporaries (Husserl, von Hildebrand, Heidegger, Otto), both in its dealings with more recent thinkers (Marion, Sloterdjik), both in its dialogue with some exponents of theological thought (Moltmann, Von Balthasar, Wojtyla, Ratzinger, Jüngel e Pannenberg). In his research activity he was mainly interested in the problem of relations between reason and faith, morality and religion, trying to merge methods and ideas coming from philosophical theology, ethics, philosophical anthropology, philosophy of emotions and ontology of relation. He is currently engaged in the analysis of the ethical, pedagogical and metaphysical-religious elements of personal exemplarity. He is a member of the Editorial Board of "Nuovo Giornale di Filosofia della Religione", "Philosophical News" and "Thaum.zein". He collaborates with the FormaMentis research center, based at the University of Verona, directed by Professor Guido Cusinato, which aims are the study of phenomenology of care relationships, formation process (Paideia, Bildung and Um-Bildung) through different disciplines and cultures, and philospophy conceived as transformative exercise of the person.
How can a good be at the same time for me and objective? The aim of this essay is to take the Scheler’s formula of a “good in itself for-me” seriously. To do this, we need to consider and explain the following points: i) the axiological experience takes place in value-feeling (Fühlen) and preferring (Vorziehen). The competence in axiological field so is closely related to an increase of the capacity of emotional reception of non-formal quality (values). There is no absolute and universal good. Only an act in which the person chooses the value affectively perceived as superior to all the values “given” within a series can be called “good”. Therefore, ii) good and evil can only refer to person as producer of acts. The person is the authentic center of ethical knowledge and of practical morality. Furthermore, iii) there is a closed link between good, person and happiness – in a non-eudaemonistic and non-relativistic sense: Only a good person is happy and, on the other hand, only a happy person does good (Vocational ethics). Finally, iv) the process of becoming person is assigned to «auroral personality» of exemplary individuals who model individual conduct (Exemplary ethics).
Sergio Sorrentino, professor of Philosophy of Religion and Moral Philsoophy, is author of many volumes, essays and articles. He collaborates with several national and international philosophical journals, He focused on the philsoophical and religious thought in modern and contemporary European culture and on Friedrich Schleiermacher. He translated in Italian one of the most significant work of this philosoher, Der Christliche Glaube, 1830-1831. Among recent publications: Oltre la ragione strumentale (Mimesis, Milano 2015) and Ernst Troeltsch. La storicità come infrastruttura del mondo umano (Aracne, Roma 2016).
The A. suggests that the intelligent living is constituted by emerging properties; in the field of agency they sum up to an appetitive activity, the possibility to pursue an outside purpose, the teleological statute of an “end in itself”. The thesis maintained is, that bios (intelligent life) is exceeding zoè (animal life), even though the one is being intertwined with the other, both pivoting on the same and one subject. Against this background one may lead the analysis of appetitive faculty (will/desire).
Claudio Tarditi, PhD, is Post-doctoral Researcher at the University of Turin (Department of Philosophy and Education) and Associated Professor of Philosophy of Education and Philosophical Anthropology at the Salesian Institute of Turin (IUS-TO, Department of Psychology). His main fields of research are phenomenology (notably its French developments) and philosophy of religion. Among his books, With and beyond Phenomenology: the Phenomenological Heresies of J. Derrida and J.-L. Marion (Genova 2008, in Italian), Inhabiting the Threshold: Paths in French Phenomenology (Milano 2013, in Italian), and Desire, Sacrifice, Forgiveness. Ren. Girard’s Philosophical Anthropology (Padova 2017, in Italian).
In this paper I intend to discuss the philosophical basis of Girard’s account of mimetic desire. More closely, I will demonstrate how metaphysic desire offers a development of Sartre’s concept of the “lack of being” introduced in the second section of Being and Nothingness. Secondly, I will address the issue of the relation between desire and will in Girard’s perspective. My core argument is that, although Girard does not provide a systematic reflection upon human will, his works show a clear Augustinian inspiration, focused on the distinction between ordinary and metaphysical freedom. Indeed, in Girard’s reading of Augustine, if man is closed within the domain of freedom as mere absence of constraints, he will remain imprisoned in the spiral of mimetic rivalries; by contrast, if man opens himself to metaphysical freedom, he will be able to overcome mimetic violence and discover a new way of life.
Elisa Grimi is Executive Director of the European Society for Moral Philosophy, Editor-in-Chief of the international journal Philosophical News and Project Manager of philojotter.com. On 30th May, 2014 she received the Paolo Michele Erede Foundation First Prize with a work on ‘Politics and Network’. She has studied and worked at various universities throughout the world, in countries including Italy, Switzerland, Austria, Germany, England, France and the United States. She is author of numerous publications, including her first Italian monograph G.E.M. Anscombe: The Dragon Lady (2014) with direct testimonies, co-author with Rémi Brague of Contro il cristianismo e l’umanismo. Il perdono dell’Occidente (Cantagalli 2015), editor of the collection Tradition as the Future for Innovation (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2016) and of the Dossier La philosophie de l’humilité (Recherches Philosophiques, ICT, 2017).
José Barrientos-Rastrojo is Professor (Profesor Titular de Universidad) at the University of Seville, Spain. He has researched on Philosophical Practice, Life-Experience, Hermeneutics and Wisdom at Harvard University, University of Cambridge, Princeton University, The University of Tokyo, The University of Sao Paulo or Autonomous National University of Mexico among others. He is the Principal Investigator of several projects such as “Can wisdom be learned in different context?” (funded by the University of Chicago). He has organized several international events such as the International Conference on Philosophical Practice and he has written more than 200 books and articles. Barrientos-Rastrojo has been awarded with two Honorary Doctorates and National Awards on Philosophy in México, Portugal and Italy. Currently, he is the Editor of the International Journal on Philosophical Practice HASER and Associate Editor of the journal Argumentos de Razón Técnica.
Enrico Berti is emeritus professor of the University of Padua and Doctor honoris causa of the National and Capodistrian University of Athens. He has been professor of philosophy in the universities of Perugia, Padua, Geneva, Bruxelles and Lugano. He is member of the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei (Rome), of the International Academy for Philosophy (Yerevan, Armenia) and of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences (Vatican City), and honorary president of the International Institute of Philosophy (Paris). His scientific interests are directed to ancient and contemporary philosophy, especially Aristotle’s thought and its survival today, so in logic as in metaphysics, anthropology, ethics and politics. He is author of many publications (books and articles), some of which have been translated in English, French, German, Greek, Polish, Spanish and Portuguese.
Maria Tilde Bettetini is Associate Professor in History of Philosophy at the International University of Languages and Media IULM, Milan Italy. Here she teaches Aesthetics and History of Philosophy. She taught History of Medieval Philosophy at the Ca’ Foscari University in Venice, Italy. She directs the ancient series Il Pensiero Occidentale of Bompiani publishing house. She contributes to the culture section of Sole24Ore, a national newspaper. She focused on ancient and medieval roots of contemporary thought. Among her recent publications: Breve storia della bugia (Milan 2001, several times re-edited and translated into 7 languages), Figure di verità. La finzione nel Medioevo occidentale (Turin 2004), Contro le immagini: alle radici dell’iconoclastia (Bari-Rome 2006), Introduzione a Agostino (Bari-Rome 2008), Quattro modi dell’amore (Bari-Rome 2012), Distruggere il passato. L’iconoclastia dall’Islam all’Isis (Milan 2016).
Rémi Brague is a French historian of philosophy, specializing in the Arabic, Jewish, and Christian thought of the Middle Ages. He is professor emeritus of Arabic and religious philosophy at the Paris-Sorbonne University, France, and Romano Guardini chair of philosophy (emeritus) at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany.
Carla Canullo is Associate Professor of Philosophy of Religion and Intercultural Hermeneutics at the University of Macerata, Italy. She completed her PhD in Philosophy and Human Sciences at the University of Perugia. Her thesis was concerned with the influence of Maine de Biran on subsequent French Philosophy, especially that of Louis Lavelle and René le Senne. Prior to her PhD, she completed advanced research on Jean Nabert and his concept of evil, for which she also translated Nabert’s Essai sur le mal. Since 2000, she has worked in contemporary French hermeneutics and phenomenology, on and with Michel Henry, Paul Ricoeur, Jean-Luc Marion, Jean-Louis Chrétien, and Claude Romano. In addition to her continued research in phenomenology and hermeneutics. She has just completed a work Il chiasmo della traduzione: Metafora e verità on translation as a method for Intercultural and Interreligious Dialogue. Her major publications include: Coscienza, corpo libertà. Itinerario tra Maine de Biran, Lavelle [Consciousness, Body, Freedom: Pathways Between Maine de Biran], Le Senne, Napoli 2001; La fenomenologia rovesciata. Percorsi tentati in Jean-Luc Marion, Michel Henry, Jean-Louis Chrétien [Phenomenology Overturned: On Jean-Luc Marion, Michel Henry, Jean-Louis Chrétien], Torino 2004; L’estasi della speranza. Ai margini del pensiero di Jean Nabert [Ecstatic Hope: On Jean Nabert], Assisi 2005; Il chiasmo della traduzione. Metafora e verità [The Chiasm of Translation. Metaphor and Truth], Milano 2017.
Juan R. Coca (Ourense, Galiza - Spain) Professor and member of Department of Sociology and Social Work at Universidad de Valladolid. Director of journal: Sociología y Tecnociencia and co-director of journal: Cómaros. Your research lines are centered in epistemology, social theory, social imaginaries and socio-hermeneutics of the Technoscientific Social System. He has published over 100 papers and many books chapters. H-index: 8.orcid.org - RESEARCHER-ID: D-5387-2016 www.redalyc.org
John Joseph Haldane is a Scottish philosopher, commentator and broadcaster. He is a papal adviser to the Vatican. He is credited with coining the term Analytical Thomism and is himself a Thomist in the analytic tradition. Haldane is associated with The Veritas Forum and is the current chairman of the Royal Institute of Philosophy.
Vasso Kindi is a Professor of Philosophy at the Department of History and Philosophy of science of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece. She has published on philosophy of science, T. S. Kuhn’s work, Wittgenstein’s philosophy, philosophy of language, philosophy of history and ethics.
Martyna Koszkało, PhD - Assistant Professor, Chair of History of Ancient and Medieval Philosophy, Institute of Philosophy, Sociology and Journalism, University of Gdańsk, Poland. She received her MA (1994) and PhD (2002) in Philosophy from the Catholic University of Lublin. Her PhD thesis was on the question of individuation according to John Duns Scotus. Her first monograph, published in Polish, was: Individual and individuation. The analysis of John Duns Scotus’ texts, TN KUL [publ.], Lublin 2003. From 2006 to 2016 she was a vice-director of the Institute of Philosophy, Sociology and Journalism of the University of Gdańsk, Poland. She conducted independent scholarly research at the Catholic University of America (from August to October 2015). Now she is finishing the project obtained by competition in National Centre of Science (Poland): The Nature of Will. Freedom and Necessity. The Analysis of John Duns Scotus' theory in comparison to St. Augustine, St. Anselm of Canterbury and St. Thomas Aquinas. Areas of Specialization: Medieval Christian Thought, History of Ancient and Medieval Ethics, Philosophy of Religion, John Duns Scotus, Theories of Individuation. Publications: papers in Polish and English (Scholastic Sources of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz’s Treatise Disputatio Metaphysica De Principio Individui, „Roczniki Filozoficzne” 65 (2017/2), 23-55. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18290/rf.2017.65.2-2; Free Will, Grace and God: The Problem of Predestination of Human Beings according to John Duns Scotus, Athens: ATINER'S Conference Paper Series, No: PHI2017-2363. https://www.atiner.gr/papers/PHI2017-2363.pdf), translation from Latin to Polish (John Duns Scotus).
Claudio La Rocca is Professor of Theoretical Philosophy and Philosophy of Mind in the Department of Education (DISFOR) at the University of Genoa, Italy. His research interests focus on Italian philosophy of the XX century, phenomenology, hermeneutics, philosophy of mind, and in particular on the philosophy of Kant, on which he has published several volumes and numerous essays in Italian, English, French, Spanish and German. From 2006 to May 2016 he was president of the Società Italiana di Studi Kantiani (Italian society of Kantian Studies). He is currently vice-president of the Italian Society of Theoretical Philosophy and member of the Executive Committee of the Consulta Nazionale di Filosofia. He is editor-in-chief of the journal «Studi kantiani».
Danielle Lories is Full Professor in Philosophy and Director of the Centre d'études phénoménologiques at the Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium. She teaches History of Philosophy, Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art. Among her publications: Philosophie analytique et esthétique (Klincksieck, Paris 2004, 3e éd.), Shaftesbury, Soliloque (L’Herne, Paris 1994), Mimèsis. Approches actuelles (la Lettre volée, Bruxelles 2007), L’art en valeurs (L’Harmattan, Paris 2011), Le sens commun et le jugement du phronimos. Aristote et les stoïciens, Louvain, Peeters (Aristote. Traductions et études, 1998), Le jugement pratique. Autour de la notion de phronèsis, (co-edited with L. Rizzerio, Vrin, Paris 2008) Le phénomène de la vie de Hans Jonas (De Boeck, Bruxelles 2001), Essais philosophiques (ed. by O. Depré, Vrin, Paris 2013), Vie et liberté. Phénoménologie, nature et éthique chez Hans Jonas (co-autor with O. Depré, Vrin, Paris 2003).
Dariusz Łukasiewicz is professor at Kazimierz Wielki University, Bydgoszcz, Poland. Director of the Institute of Philosophy. Chairman of the Department of Logic and Ontology. Member of the Committee of Philosophical Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences. President of the Central European Society for Philosophy of Religion. The author of over 100 scientific publications including 15 authored or edited books. Current research: Polish Brentanism and philosophy of religion.
Margarita Mauri Alvarez is Professor of Ethics at the Faculty of Philosophy of the University of Barcelona, Spain. Degree in Philosophy from the University of Barcelona in 1980. Extraordinary Degree Award. Doctorate in Philosophy from the University of Barcelona in 1986. She is the principal investigator of the International Group of Stágeira. Aristotelian Studies of Practical Philosophy. He conducts two permanent research Seminars: the Aristotle Seminar and the Iris Murdoch Seminar.
Michele Marsonet received his degrees from the University of Genoa, Italy, and the University of Pittsburgh, USA. He currently is Full Professor of Philosophy of Science and Methodology of Human Sciences, and Dean of the School of Humanities, University of Genoa. He has been Visiting Professor in several universities around the world, and is Fellow of the Center for Philosophy of Science at the University of Pittsburgh. He has written many books in Italian and English, among which: Science, Reality, and Language (Stete University of New York Press 1995), The Primacy of Practical Reason (University Press of America 1996), The Problem of Realism (Ashgate 2002), Logic and Metaphysics (Name 2004), Idealism and Praxis (Ontos Verlag 2008), Science, Realism and Conceptual Schemes (Lambert 2016).
Letterio Mauro is full professor of History of Philosophy at the University of Genoa, Italy. Head of the Post-graduate Degree in Philosophical Methodologies (2010-2013), deputy headmaster of the Faculty of Arts and Philosophy (2011-2013), vice director of the Department of Philosophy (2000-2011; 2015-), Mauro teaches history of philosophy and tutors students in their dissertations, post-graduate and PhD thesis on the whole history of philosophy. Mauro has also organized seminars and lectures for the PhD in Philosophy, which have resulted in his recent publications L’uomo (in)formato. Percorsi nella paideia ieri e oggi (Milano 2011) and L’idea di Università tra passato e futuro (Genova, 2011). Mauro was part of PRIN, PhD and University Committees and coordinated projects sponsored by the University of Genoa (2006, 2008, 2012, 2014). He is currently leading the PRIN 2012 research unit based at the University of Genoa; he is also a founding member of “Aretai – International Center on Virtues”, that is based at the University of Genoa and is associated to several international institutions, such as the “Virtues across continents program” promoted by the Institute for the Study of Human Flourishing (ISHF) at University of Oklahoma, the Jubilee Center for Character and Virtues at University of Birmingham and the Virtue, Happiness & the Meaning of Life Project at University of Chicago. Mauro is also member of “Accademia Ligure di Scienze e Lettere”.
Cyrille Michon is Professor at the Department of Philosophy of the University of Nantes, France. He has been director of the Centre Atlantique de Philosophie (CAPHI - EA 2163). He focused on history of medieval philosophy and then on analytic tradition contemporary philosophy, with particular attention to philosophy of action, metaphysics, and philosophy of religion.
Javier San Martín. Untill 2016 Full Professor of Philosophy at UNED, (Open University of Spain), now Emeritus Professor. Founder and currently Honorary President of the Spanish Society of Phenomenology (SEFE). Research interests: phenomenology, philosophy of culture, philosophical anthropology, philosophy of Ortega y Gasset. Selection of publications: La estructura del método fenomenológico; La fenomenología de Husserl como utopía de la razón; Fenomenología y cultura en Ortega; Teoría de la cultura; Para una filosofía de Europa: ensayos de fenomenología de la historia; Antropología filosófica I and Antropología filosófica II; La nueva imagen de Husserl, lecciones de Guanajuato. As editor, Ortega y Gassets Schriften zur Phänomenologie, and Phänomenologie in Spanien. More in: http://www2.uned.es/dpto_fim/profesores/JSM/JSMperfil.htm
Robert Spaemann is a German Roman Catholic philosopher. He is considered as a member of the Ritter-School. Spaemann's focus is on Christian ethics. He is known for his work in bioethics, ecology, and human rights. Although not yet widely translated into languages other than his native German, Spaemann is internationally known and his work is highly regarded by Pope Benedict XVI.
Ricardo Tejada currently works at the Department of Spanish, Université du Maine, France. He conducts research in Social and Political Philosophy, Metaphysics and Aesthetics. His current project is “History of Spain essays”.
René Torkler, born in 1977, is professor of the didactics of ethics at Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt, Germany. He studied philosophy, history, Dutch philology, German as a foreign language, and educational science. His work focuses in particular on the didactics of philosophy and ethics, hermeneutics, philosophy of education and practical philosophy with a special interest in the works of Hannah Arendt.
Manuel E. Vázquez. Professor of Philosophy, University of Valencia (Spain). Ex-Dean of the Faculty of Philosophy and CC.EE. His field of research is contemporary philosophy, particularly hermeneutics and deconstruction. His publications deal with the problem of nihilism, the difference between man and animal, the relationship between philosophy and literature, as well as the current dilemmas of politics.
John Henry Crosby is an American translator, writer, and cultural entrepreneur. He is founder and president of the Hildebrand Project, which promotes Dietrich von Hildebrand’s thought and witness through publications, events, and digital media.
John O'Callaghan is Associate Professor of Philosophy at the Notre Dame University, Indiana, USA. President of the American Catholic Philosophical Association (2012-2013), BS in Physics, St. Norbert College, 1984. MS in Mathematics, University of Notre Dame, 1986. PhD in Philosophy, University of Notre Dame, 1996. Director of the Jacques Maritain Center at the University of Notre Dame. Permanent member of the Pontifical Academy of St. Thomas Aquinas, appointed by Pope Benedict XVI in 2010. Past President of the American Catholic Philosophical Association. His areas of scholarly interest include Medieval Philosophy, the philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas, and Thomistic Metaphysics and Ethics.
Professor Tracey Rowland holds the St John Paul II Chair of Theology at the University of Notre Dame Australia. She is the author of five books and holds two doctorates in theology along with degrees in law and political philosophy. She is a member of the International Theological Commission.
Danielle Lories is Full Professor in Philosophy and Director of the Centre d'études phénoménologiques at the Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium. She teaches History of Philosophy, Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art. Among her publications: Philosophie analytique et esthétique (Klincksieck, Paris 2004 (3e éd.)), Shaftesbury, Soliloque (L’Herne, Paris 1994), Mimèsis. Approches actuelles (la Lettre volée, Bruxelles 2007), L’art en valeurs (L’Harmattan, Paris 2011), Le sens commun et le jugement du phronimos. Aristote et les stoïciens, Louvain, Peeters (Aristote. Traductions et études, 1998), Le jugement pratique. Autour de la notion de phronèsis, (co-edited with L. Rizzerio, Vrin, Paris 2008) Le phénomène de la vie de Hans Jonas (De Boeck, Bruxelles 2001), Essais philosophiques (ed. by O. Depré, Vrin, Paris 2013), Vie et liberté. Phénoménologie, nature et éthique chez Hans Jonas (co-autor with O. Depré, Vrin, Paris 2003).
Peter Schaber Professor of Philosophy at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. He has written about various issues in applied ethics. He is the author of a book on Human Dignity. He is co-editor of the the forthcoming Handbook of The Ethics of Consent. He is also co-editor of Moral Philosophy and Policy and he is currently working on a theory of consent.
Philipp Schwind is a postdoc at the Center for Ethics at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Has has studied in Munich, St. Andrews and holds a PhD from the University of Miami, USA. Normative ethics and political philosophy are his main areas of research. His current project is on moral luck. He has published on moral epistemology and the philosophy of friendship. Currently, he is working on a collection of the most important papers in moral philosophy in the 20th century, a translation of Ross' The Right and the Good into German, the philosophy of boycotts and the epistemology of moral intuitionism.
Joshua Stuchlik is an associate professor of philosophy at the University of St. Thomas in St. Paul, Minnesota, USA. His main areas of interest include ethics, action theory, and epistemology. His work has appeared in Philosophical Studies, The Journal of Moral Philosophy, The Journal of Value Inquiry, Synthese, and The Journal of the History of Philosophy.
Achille C. Varzi is Professor of Philosophy at Columbia University, New York (USA). A graduate of the University of Trento (Italy), he received his Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of Toronto (Canada). His main research interests are in logic, metaphysics and philosophy of language. He is an editor of The Journal of Philosophy, a subject editor of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, and an associate or advisory editor of The Monist, Synthese, Dialectica, The Review of Symbolic Logic, and other journals. He also writes for the general public and contributes regularly to some Italian newspapers, and is currently teaching for the Prison Education Program sponsored by Columbia University’s Justice-in-Education Initiative.
studied Philosophy at the University of Ferrara (Italy) and at the University of Marburg (Germany). She received her M.A. (October 2001) and Ph.D. (April 2009) in Philosophy from the University of Ferrara (Italy). Since April 2010, she has a teaching and research position at the Philosophy Department at the University of Konstanz (Germany). In May 2015 she was awarded a two-year fellowship from the Brigitte-Schlieben-Lange-Programm für Nachwuchswissenschaftlerinnen mit Kind to carry out a research project on animal ethics. Since the 2015/2016 academic year she also teaches Moral Philosophy at the University of Ferrara (as “professoressa a contratto”). Her areas of expertise are: Philosophy of Enlightenment, especially Kant and his Practical Philosophy; Marxist Philosophy, especially György Lukács; Normative Ethics and Applied Ethics, especially Bioethics and Animal Ethics; Metaethics.
is a Contract Professor of Intellectual Property and Competition Law at the University of Verona and Post-doc Researcher in Business Law at the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart of Milan and. After his graduation in Law at the Catholic University of Milan, in 2012 he was admitted to the bar of Milan and in 2015 he received his PhD in Law and Economics from Luiss University of Rome. As a PhD candidate, he was Visiting Researcher at Columbia University of New York (2013) and Scholarship Holder at the Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition in Munich (2014). In addition to slightly technical topics in the field of business law, his research interests embrace Legal Theory, Law and Economics, and Moral Philosophy. Besides his publications in Italian and European law journals, for instance he is author of an inspiring interview with United States Circuit Judge Guido Calabresi (Yale Professor Emeritus of Law) concerning the role of philosophy for judges – published in Philosophical News(No. 6, 2013).
is professor of Contemporary Philosophy at the Theological Faculty of Florence, and research coordinator at the Fondazione Centro Studi Campostrini of Verona; he is member of the Council Board of Italian Association of Philosophy of Religion – AIFR (www.aifr.it), which is associated with the European Society for Philosophy of Religion; he is also member of the Editorial Board of the Editor Project for Academia (academia.edu). He studied the French personalism of the XXth Century, in particular the thought of Denis de Rougemont, on which he has published the first monograph in Italian (La Persona e l’Occidente, Milan, 2014). In the last two years, he switched his interest to the links between philosophy, ecology and religion: on this topic he recently published a book entitled Fine del mondo o fine dell’uomo? Saggio su ecologia e religione (Verona, 2015). In the theological context, he is concerned himself with the concept of “person” in Christology and Trinitarian theology. He translated two books of Slavoj Žižek in italian, The Monstrosity of Christ and Paul’s New Moment (La mostrouisità di Cristo and Paolo Reloaded. Sul futuro del cristianesimo, Massa, 2010 and 2012).
has obtained a Bachelor’s degree in Theology at the Facoltà di Teologia dell’Italia Settentrionale (2002) and a PhD in Philosophy at Università degli Studi di Genova (2008). Currently, he does research work in History of Philosophy at Università degli Studi di Genova where he teach Tendencies of Contemporary Thought. He has authored three essays and about fifty papers published in journals or in collections of essays that concern contemporary thinking. He especially researches in epistemology, particularly addressing the problem of intentionality (Wittgenstein, Tommaso e la cura dell’intenzionalità, MEF, Firenze 2009; From Justification to Warrant, towards Virtue Epistemology, «Epistemologia», 34 (2011), pp. 5-28) as well as analytic philosophy of religion, conducting inquiries into its epistemological aspects (Una nuova teologia naturale. La proposta degli epistemologi riformati e dei tomisti wittgensteiniani, Carocci, Roma 2011). He has investigated the public role of religion (M. Damonte, Confrontation Between Civilization, Religions and Professions of Faith, «Études Maritainiennes / Maritain Studies», 25 (2009), pp. 46-57) and the philosophy of prayer (Homo organs. Antropologia della preghiera, Fondazione Centro Studi Campostrini, Verona 2014). The results of his research have been discussed at various international conventions, above all Europe-wide, thanks to The European Society for Philosophy of Religion’s biennial conventions. He has recently proposed a new approach to natural theology (Towards a New Natural Theology: Between Reformed Epistemology and Wittgensteinian Thomism, in S.T. Kołodziejczyk, J. Salamon (eds.), Knowledge, Action, Pluralism, Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main 2013, pp. 113-134); for this reason, he was also called upon to study the Mediaeval sources of analytic philosophy of religion.
is a student of ancient and medieval philosophy at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium). Editor of The Clarion Review and Classics Editor at Politics & Poetics, past studies have taken him to the University of Virginia (USA), the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (Germany), and the Institut catholique de Paris (France). More recently he has taught Platonic dialogues for the Department of Legal Philosophy at the University of Leiden Law School (The Netherlands). His translations include Rémi Brague’s Les ancres dans le ciel (forthcoming, St. Augustine’s Press).
is an adjunct member of the Theology Faculty at St. John’s University, where he teaches for their Rome campus. He is also director of the St. Albert the Great Center for Scholastic Studies, which for five years has hosted an annual summer theology program in Norcia, Italy. Christopher is enrolled at the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas (“the Angelicum”), where he will soon complete his Licentiate in Sacred Theology (S.T.L.) with a concentration in Thomistic Studies. His thesis investigates the question of predestination in the early Thomist school. During the 2015/2016 academic year, Christopher had the opportunity to take a postgraduate diploma in Medieval Studies offered through the International Federation for Medieval Studies (FIDEM). Christopher completed his Masters in Sacred Theology (S.T.M., Mag. Theol.) at the International Theological Institute in Trumau, Austria, where his thesis was on the question of the liturgy as a theological source in the Church Fathers and St. Thomas Aquinas. Originally from North Carolina, Christopher has previously worked at the Maryvale Higher Institute for Religious Sciences in Birmingham, England and also in various capacities of pastoral ministry. Christopher’s research interests in both philosophy and theology are focused around the conjunction of metaphysics and religion as found principally in the Thomistic tradition, as well as more generally in the medieval dialectic of the University of Paris. He has a critical edition of several previously unpublished articles by Henry of Ghent on the subject of Human Freedom forthcoming.
graduated at State University of Milan, focuses her research on medieval philosophy and phenomenology. After spending one year in Cologne she moved to Erfurt, where she is currently completing her Ph.D. in Philosophy at Max Weber Center for cultural studies with a thesis on Scheler’s phenomenology of religion. Her interests are in phenomenology, philosophy of religion, as well as ontology and ethics. Among her publications there is the translation and editing of “Max Scheler, sfera Assoluta e posizione reale dell’idea di Dio – La morte nel contesto di vita morale” (Milan, 2015), and the essays “Der Wahrheitsbegriff bei Husserl und Edith Stein” (in print, Herder) and “The Concept of Life in Ludwig Binswanger’s Phenomenological Psychopathology” (in print, Springer).
he is Ph.D. student in Philosophy at the University of Salerno with a thesis on Max Scheler. His field of research are theoretical philosophy, moral philosophy, early phenomenology and philosophy of religion, with particular attention to the thought of Edmund Husserl, Dietrich von Hildebrand, Edith Stein, Martin Heidegger, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Immanuel Kant, Rudolf Otto, Jean-Luc Marion and Peter Sloterdijk. He is also focusing on philosophical theology (especially around the philosophical and theological contribution of Austin Farrer right now), personalistic ethics and theism, philosophy of emotions and ontology of relation, with an emphasis on the notions of person, sacrifice, care, sympathy, love and evil. Ruggiero is a member of the Editorial Board of «Giornale di Filosofia della Religione» since 2015 and of Max-Scheler-Gesellschaft. He collaborates with the FormaMentis research center, based at the University of Verona, directed by Professor Guido Cusinato, which aims are the study of phenomenology of care relationships, formation process (Paideia, Bildung and Um-Bildung) through different disciplines and cultures, and philosophy conceived as transformative exercise of the person. He participated to the XXI Conference of the European Society for Philosophy of Religion (ESPR), Uppsala University, August 2016, with the talk “Involved God. Thinking of Evil beyond the Idea of Fall?”.
is adjunct professor of Theoretical Philosophy at the University of Calabria (Italy), professor of Contemporary Philosophy at the Theological seminar of Agrigento and Visiting Professor at the Instituto de Investigations Filológicas – Seminario de Hermenéutica of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; he also collaborates with Campostrini Foundation in Verona. He spent periods study at the University of Madrid (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, CSIC), Ciudad de México (UAM, ITESM), Puebla (BUAP – México) and Morelia (UMSNH – México). He is member of many international projects and editorial boards. His studies focus on philosophical anthropology and philosophy of religion both read from a phenomenological point of view. His most important publications are Tra metafisica e storia. L’idea dell’uomo in Eduardo Nicol (Firenze, 2010), Simbolo e corpo. A partire da Eduardo Nicol(Napoli, 2013). At this time, his interest have turned to the study of Philosophical Christology and Political Theology.
is currently completing a Ph.D. in Philosophy at the University of Rome Tor Vergata with a thesis on Louis Lavelle. Her studies focus on philosophical anthropology and her interests are in metaphysics, ethics, philosophy of religion; she studied in particular María Zambrano and Romano Guardini (“Sul limite della vita. La filosofia polare di Romano Guardini” [On the limit of life. The polar philosophy of Romano Guardini], «Dialegesthai», 2014). She published the essay “Un’etica della ‘visione’. Romano Guardini e l’unità oppositiva” [An ethic of ‘vision’. Romano Guardini and the oppositive unity] for Morcelliana Publisher and a study on the topic of Ecology for «La Società». She has spent a period of research at Collège de France and she will collaborate at the Institut Catholique de Toulouse, France, as responsible of the Équipe de recherché “Métaphysique: histoire, concepts et actuality”.
is currently post-doctoral fellow in History of Philosophy at the University of Genoa, where she collaborates with the chair of History of Philosophy, General Pedagogy, Psychopedagogy. She conducted her doctoral research under the supervision of professor Luciano Malusa. She obtained a PhD in Philosophy in this university (2012) defending a Ph.D. thesis on “Humanism and humanisms in the historiography of Eugenio Garin”. During her Ph.D., she studied archival material stored in the Library and Archives Center of the SNS of Pisa, in the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library – Duke University of Durham (North Carolina – USA) and in the Archival Collections – Rare Book & Manuscript Library – Columbia University of New York (USA). She has been enrolled in more PRIN (Italian Project of National Interest) with University of Genoa and in two Research Projects co-financed by the Foundation CARITRO. Since 2010 she is member of the Scientific Committee for the National and Critical edition of Antonio Rosmini’s letters. Since 2012 she participates as a scholarship holder at the Rosminian Symposium organized by the International Center of Rosminian Studies; since 2014 she participates at the Philosophical Cenacles organized by the Rosmini Institute – Philosophical Research Center. She also organized and organizes International and National Conferences, Seminars. She is member of Italian Philosophical Society (SFI), Board of Directors of Ligurian Philosophical Association, of Aretai – Center on Virtues at the University of Genoa. She has high knowledge of Latin. She speaks Italian (mother tongue), English, Spanish. For the complete list of publications see here.
holds a PhD in Political Philosophy (2007) at University of Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna in Pisa (SSSA), where he covered different research positions from 2009 to 2016. He is a member of Lab Migrant Studies at the University of Chieti-Pescara (Italy). From 2012 to 2014, he was a member and co-leader of the EU-funded project RoboLaw (Regulating Emerging Robotic Technologies in Europe), Robot-Era and responsible for the scientific activities of several Research Projects of National Interest (PRIN) funded by the Italian Ministry of Education and Universities (MIUR). He is currently involved in the EU-projects PERSONA, ASSISTANCE, and PERSIST. He was a member of the International Research Laboratory on Conflict, Development and Global Politics at SSSA. He has published over 40 papers in international journals, books, and conferences, and has peer-reviewed for many highly ranked journals. He spent research periods at the Institut für Sozialforschung of the J.W. Goethe-University in Frankfurt, and he was visiting scholar at the Committee on Social Thought of the University of Chicago (2006). His fields of specialization are modern and contemporary political philosophy, Hegel, Frankfurt School, social justice, shame, human enhancement, robotics and disabilities, ethics and emerging technologies.
studied philosophy at the University of Genoa (Italy) and at the University of Tübingen (Germany). She obtained a Bachelor’s degree in Philosophy at the University of Genoa with a thesis on Jürgen Habermas interpreter of Kant’s philosophy of religion and a Master’s degree in Philosophical Methodologies with a work on Kant’s ethical-religious community and cosmopolitan community. Since 2019 she is PhD student at the FINO – Northwestern Italian Philosophy Consortium (Theoretical Curriculum, at the University of Turin, Italy) with a project focused on the Kantian community of taste as a basis for an intercultural community. Current research interests include theoretical philosophy, moral philosophy, philosophy of religion, aesthetics, German philosophy with a particular focus on Immanuel Kant, philosophy for community and intercultural dialogue.
Joseph M. Forte is Assistant Professor of Philosophy at Rivier University (U.S.A). Other institutions at which he has taught include Merrimack College, Boston College, Bridgewater State University, and The Catholic University of America. He earned his Ph.D at The Catholic University of America School of Philosophy (2016), his MA at Boston College, and his BA at The College of the Holy Cross. He also spent a year studying at Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland). His most recent publication is an introductory ethics textbook titled Moral Issues and Movies: An Introduction to Ethical Theories and Issues through the Lens of Film (2021). He has also published journal articles on Plato's ethics and the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL). He is originally from New York City (the Bronx) and currently resides in Maine (U.S.A).
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