Registrazione presso il Tribunale di Napoli n. 24 del 21.04.2015
Double blind peer review
La rivista attualmente è presente nell'elenco delle riviste scientifiche per l'area 11 dell'Agenzia Nazionale di Valutazione del Sistema Universitario e della Ricerca (ANVUR) ai fini dell'Abilitazione Scientifica Nazionale.
Recently, scholars’ attention has been captured by a dramatic form of social discrimination that is characterized by deprivation or denial of others’ humanness, that is, dehumanization. Since the beginning of the study of such phenomenon, dehumanization has been analyzed under the shape of animalization, pointing to a lowering comparison targeting others and the association, both explicit or implicit, of individuals or entire social groups to lower, animal, less than human beings. The current contribution highlights blatant forms of animalization, with specific attention to the role of language in communicating a lowered perception of others, as well as more subtle forms of animalization, which are demanding the same. Pervasiveness of the phenomenon will be highlighted by tackling its heinous social cognitive and behavioral consequences and by stressing the chances to hinder such outcomes.
Keywords: Animalization, Blatant and Subtle Animalization; Social Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes of Animalization.
Sexual objectification is a particular form of denial of humanity occurring when the sexual parts of the body, or its functions, are symbolically separated from the rest of the person, and considered apt to represent and describe them. Advertisements, television programs, music videos usually offer a representation of the women as objects rather than persons. Frequent exposure to such media representations has adverse effects both on the individual and social level, favoring the assumption of sexist attitudes and behaviors. Drawing on psychosocial research, we will discuss when and where sexual objectification occurs and how it affects the way we see and treat others, referring also to gender violence issues.
Keywords: Sexual Bjectification; Humanity; Sexism; Gender Violence.
Objectification – the perception and treatment of others as mere objects – is a relevant phenomenon in the workplace. Indeed, several theoretical analyses have emphasized its persistence in the capitalist society. However, only in recent years social psychological research has been interested in objectification in the work domain, by considering the two facets of the phenomenon. The first concerns the process by which workers are objectified by others as a consequence of their work. Several studies have shown that both asymmetrical work relationship and objectifying activities (repetitive, fragmented and other-directed) promote objectification, that is the perception of workers as tools, lacking human mental states. The second facet concerns the self-objectification of workers, the process by which they perceive themselves as mere objects because of their work experiences. Research has shown that self-objectification can be triggered by the perception of being objectified by superiors or when performing objectifying activities. This phenomenon entails a series of negative consequences: less involvement in the performed task, worse performance, reduced beliefs in personal free will and greater tendency to conformity. The implications of these results and the future directions of research, which focus on the possible role of workers’ self-objectification in maintaining inequalities, will be discussed.
Keywords: Workers’ Objectification; Workers’ Self-objectification; Free Will; Conformity.
In this work we have shown that healthcare professionals tend to assign a lower human status to patients, who are perceived as less characterized than physicians and nurses by the distinctive traits of humanity (e.g., self-control, rationality). In addition, we reviewed data showing that, among healthcare professionals, patient dehumanization is associated with lower levels of burnout and higher levels of work engagement. Furthermore, clinical problem solving seems to be incompatible with understanding patients’ mental states (empathy). We discussed interventions that can reduce stress and, thus, patient dehumanization, in medical contexts. Strategies can be suggested allowing physicians to engage in both empathic relations and the solution of clinical cases. Lastly, this contribution analyses healthcare disparities when doctor and patient belong to different ethnic groups.
Keywords: Patient Dehumanization; Dehumanization and Burnout; Clinical Problem Solving; Empathy; Ethnic Disparities in Medicine.
In this work some aspects of dehumanization in psychiatry are considered. A first problem that involves the subjects with mental disease is that the dignity of the human being cannot be reled only to a full awareness and responsibility. Different aspects of dehumanization in psychiatry are then illustrated in the family context, through an analysis of the film Family life by Ken Loach (1971); in the context of the asylum, analyzed through some observations of the ’60s by Ervin Goffman and Franco Basaglia; with the opposition of Cardinal von Galen against extermination of the disabled people as operated by Nazism and his attempt to re-humanize the “worthless lives” emphasizing their similarity with that of his listeners and their relatives. The work ends with some considerations on the ways in which insidious mechanisms of dehumanization can affect even the life of today’s caring institutions.
Keywords: Consciousness; Responsibility; Institualization; Worthless Lifes; Community Psychiatry.
As income inequality grows, welfare state worsens and social issues that affect our social life aggravate. Nevertheless, many citizens oppose social-welfare policies that seek to alleviate the suffering of many. In this article, we addressed one of the key factors that undermines social change and promotes the maintenance of the status quo: The tendency to (de)humanize both poor and wealthy groups. To do this, we first explained how those at the bottom of the society are perceived as irrational animals, while the groups at the top are seen as unemotional machines. Secondly, we focused on analyzing how animalization (vs. humanization) of the poor leads to a rejection of redistribution policies, due to the perception that poor groups are responsible for their plight. Thirdly, we addressed how mechanizing (vs. humanizing) wealthy groups leads people to support redistribution policies as a consequence of considering that these groups are increasing their wealth through illegitimate means. Finally, we concluded by pointing out how animalizing the poor and humanizing the wealthy seems to be the key combination in maintaining income inequality. While, by humanizing those who have less and mechanizing those who have more, the support for income inequality is defied.
Keywords: Animalization; Mechanization; Poverty; Wealthy; Income Redistribution.
According to Katharine MacKinnon, women have never been considered wholly human. Starting from this standpoint, this paper argues that patriarchal violence creates the conditions in which women’s humanity is particularly and actively vilified, attacked and denied. In the context of male domestic violence, sexual aggressions, and prostitution, women are treated as objects or animals, their auto-determination is impeded, thwarted their feelings are ignored; in prostitution they are also considered fungible and commodified. When women look for help or justice, they risk to be further de-humanized, for their testimony is still considered as less credible than their aggressor’ testimony. There is today some hints of an increasing social awareness of women’s dehumanization: it is hoped that will be a step in the path to be considered and treated as human beings.
Keywords: Dehumanization; Sexual Violence; Gender Relations.
This work analyzes the issue of fundamental human rights: are they guaranteed to all human beings? Probably not. This answer comes from examining the condition of migrants in Europe and, in particular, Italy. Our country often discriminates; it is xenophobic and racist. This very worrying situation emerges clearly from the treatment reserved for migrants in Italy, who are often considered criminals and terrorists. Immigrants are subjected to many forms of dehumanization: in such cases, it is up to our criminal judges to guarantee the victims’ rights and protect such vulnerable people.
The article also recalls the sentence with which the Milan Assize Court condemned Osman Matammud to life imprisonment for crimes (kidnapping, homicide, sexual violence, torture) committed in Libya as head of the management of the migrant camp of Bani Walid; the ruling offers a starting point to reflect on Italian, Libyan and European responsibilities for what happens in migrant camps, compared by many to Nazi concentration camps.
Keywords: Human Rights; Protecting the Rights of Migrant; Dehumanization; Criminal Procedure.